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Forests have significant potential to help mitigate human-caused climate change and provide society with a broad range of co-benefits. Local, national, and international efforts have developed policies and incentives to protect and enhance forest carbon sinks. But climate-driven risks may fundamentally compromise forest carbon stocks and sinks in the 21st century.

Understanding and quantifying climate-driven risks to forest stability can help illuminate how forests might help contribute towards the Paris Agreement climate goals. Thus, rigorous scientific assessment of the risks and limitations to widespread deployment of forests as natural climate solutions is urgent. In this paper, we synthesize current scientific understanding of the climate-driven risks to forests and lay out a roadmap for quantifying current and forecasting future risks to forest stability.